The most practical approach.

Introduction to Humanistic and Existentialism approaches in Counselling and Psychotherapy. This title will be with us for next 3 post where I try to explain a bit of Humanistic and Existentialism approaches.

The humanistic and existentialism approaches derive from ancient Greece and Rome and were delivered by the 19th century. After all in 1964, at the Old Saybrook conference, it established the new movement in humanistic psychotherapy. Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers and Rollo May are individuals who had participated in the conference.


Humanistic and existential approaches originally established in the 19th century after psychoanalytic school of Freud and the behaviourism approach. Abraham Maslow was one of the first people who was bound for creating humanistic psychology. Humanistic and Existential approaches, lie close to each other. Both respect clients beliefs and individualism, personal responsibility and ability for own choice to change. The third force psychotherapists are creators and developers of new aproaches like:

On one side, we meet a non-directive theory which is a Rogerians approach, who did the significant movement in humanistic psychotherapy with other famous people like Abraham Maslow with his “Hierarchy of Needs”. On another side, we have the theories of counselling which provide the therapist with a conceptual framework which works by allowing them to think systematically about human development and therapeutic processes.

Humanistic approaches are different from other psychotherapy schools because it concentrates on the “here and now” and shows more interest in the whole person, rather than the experience of psychoanalysing approach with Freud’s theory. Psychoanalyse delves through the deep past of human existence and tries research in unfortunate experiences rather than positive continuations. In personal development we need to learn how to change and how we can accept a person as an individual organism.

“The curious paradox is that when I accept myself just as I am, then I can change.”

Carl Rogers


Superconsciousness and inner wisdom, are a source of a fully functioning person and self-awareness by understanding and acceptance. Most significant moments and experiences are not only in therapy but in life as a whole such as the time when we fully accept ourself as a person and as an organism through the fulfilment of the potential in our lives. This is protruded through Rogers as being called the “Fully functioning person” (Rogers 1963a). Rogers believed that humanity has one basic need to self-actualization, to achieve the tendency, we have to be in a state of congruence where self-image is close to ideal. As Rogers said in one of his book:

“The organism has one basic tendency and striving – to actualize, maintain, and enhance the experiencing organism”

(Rogers, 1951, p. 487).

One typical issue for an internal locus of evaluation is explained in Dave Mearns and Brian Throne’s book:

“I suppose I went into the job to please my father. It seemed to make sense, too, regarding having some carrier structure or “…yes I have a feeling I married Jean because I knew my parents like her….”


All the talk between therapist and the client show significant evidence of locus of evaluation, when the client realizes he accepts the job or the relationship with Jean on purpose for pleasing his parents, but not for himself. These implications can make the client unhappy and could be devastating in the future. As the job does not satisfy him and is not productive as he wishes and the marriage is a mistification for pleasing others but not the individual. That is the point when we find own self-unfulfillment and unhappiness as we cannot achieve our full potential in life and the congruence of self-acceptance does not be retaliated by one or more wrong decisions in life.

I hope you enjoyed reading this piece.

See you soon in the next post.

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Personal Growth in Rogerian Perspective


The Personal Development is a long process of human puzzling. Many different stages of our life create something new. It exists every time something important or useful occurs in rest of our being. In this post I will touch base on the Rogerian Theory and I will continue with the Introduction to Humanistic and Existentialism approaches.

According to Carl Rogers, the essence of personal growth is the “Self” where he believes the person changes during their life and creates their personality during their existence by experiences and self-concept (self-image, self-worth or self-esteem, and ideal self).


Since an individuals self-image is depicted as how we see our self, we make an opinion about our body image or perceive our self as wise or obtuse because we are influenced by parents, a member of family, friends, social media and other factors in the human environment. The self-image could be very important for another factor such as self-esteem and self-worth, where we find what we are thinking about our self, and that this believing system aroused and formed in childhood, could stay indefinitely throughout adulthood. Next aspect of the Rogerian school is the ideal self, where we imagine who we would like to be, according to our ambitions and aims in life. The ideal self is not persistent, as the typical self-consistently changes and it depends on circumstances in life and could vary from person to person.

We see what we believe.

The emotional state as a core of self-concept can be individual and have personal meaning. It could possibly have happened personally at some stage, as it is projected as not what we want to see or how others see us. For instance, Johari Window showing the deeper examination of own self and how others perceive us and how we pervasive our self.

According to Person-Centred Therapy (PCT), Rogerian believes that the individual and the unique experience of humans as letting them be the human and the expert on his life with the person perception. As stated before, when two people observe the same pigeon, they have two different experiences and two feelings. Two people look at the same object through the window and will have diffrent perceptions as well as spotting different objects in the same direction of view. Considering the growth and personal development, we cannot forget about self-awareness, where we have to ask ourself “Who am I?” and explore the power of the big “Why”?


An outstanding value in the process of development we hold is an initial core condition such as empathy, where we learn how to understand others more genuinely and adequately.


Unconditional positive regard is utilized in the therapeutic process and is not dependent on the client’s personality or behavior. As theories of counselling provide the therapist with a conceptual framework, others will ask how and which way it can work. That will allow those to think systematically about human development and the therapeutic process.

As a grown person, we accept others unconditionally without bias and prejudice. For instance, I still offer help no matter what condition the client will present. A typical example of conditional behavior would be where the parent prefers where their children are calm and gentle in other way the guardians start be conditional towards to the kids. In other words “if you behave nicely and you be good i will be love you more” That should not happens during the session and client must receiving an “unconditional positive regard” and following Rogers’ path the psychotherapist will be following the teaching principles when showing evidence of high-quality openness and a genuine person. Finally, during a demonstration as part of Carl Rogers ‘person-centered therapy (PCT) session with Gloria, the observer will note how Gloria has shown significant evidence of how we can develop during a psychotherapist session, using only one type of therapy, following Rogers’ thoughts in the humanistic sciences.


“I feel more comfortable the way you are talking to me in a low voice, and I don’t feel you will be so harsh on me.”

Gloria.

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Self actualization

Abraham Maslow and his approach for human existentialism is the last part of the Introduction to Humanistic and Existentialism approaches in Counselling and Psychotherapy. In this post I will summarize my last three posts to make it as simple as I can.
It is worth to be reminded of Maslow’s opinion about self-actualization where he believes what people need for personal growth and discovery in life is personal meaning, depending on what is worth and important for them. According to the characteristics for instance:

 ” They perceive reality efficiently and can tolerate uncertainty. Accept themselves and others for what they are. Spontaneous in thought and action” or self-actualization person behavior. For example:

“Experiencing life like a child, with full absorption and concentration. Trying new things instead of sticking to safe paths. Listening to your feelings in evaluating experiences instead of the voice of tradition, authority or the majority.”

Maslow’s “Hierarchy of Needs” and his investment for education make a major contribution to work for teaching and classroom management. As a human, we need to strive for full potential and step by step retaliate ourself in our own life from basic existence, biological and physiological needs, from safety to love and belongs and from esteem, reputation to self-actualization.


“The curious paradox is that when I accept myself just as I am, then I can change.”

Carl Rogers.


Personal development and growth during the journey of therapeutic approaches in humanistic and existentialism, as a person, have to be experienced and evaluated by our own self-awareness, find the locus of evaluation and constantly improve actualizing tendency to remember the condition of self-worth and organismic processes during human life.

A developing person has to remember about Rogers rationale where we know that we exist in the hierarchy of human needs and our growth by own experiences and awareness of own control self. Constantly looking and improving meaning and sense in life. Foster a good working relationship with ourself and others. The humanistic school believes when the therapist provides proper therapeutic processes, then the client can heal himself, in many issues without medication.

Personal growth lets us be at ease with ourself, more truly and more understanding and more aware. To be more responsible as a person who has their own choice, be in the here and now at present, no to live in the past and by going there and checking it out is primitive and by not staying in there, is key for peronsal growth.
Theories of counselling provide the therapist with a conceptual framework by which their work allows them to think systematically about human development and therapeutic processes.

Another value in human development is finding the sense in life according to existentialism approaches and from authors like Victor Frankl, who wrote the amazing book “Men search for meaning “, a book from experience in his life during which he has to stay in Nazi camps during the WII. He asks his comrade and himself what is the meaning of life, what is the purpose and the aim. Even though the experience causes irreparable damage because of the loss of his family, he does not lose the sense of the life as he knows by reflection and by the self-determination and the uniqueness of the human. We can find existentialism by many authors from the philosophical point of view Nietzsche, Soren Kierkegaard, Sartre or Buber to more phenomenological structures and close in time like Rollo May, Irvin Yalom, James Bugental. All that helps in the development by humanistic approaches, is that any human is unique and individual, we are born alone and will die alone. We come into the world for a particular reason and a purpose for living; To live in the here and now.

“The good life is a process, not a state of being. It is a direction, not a destination.”

Carl Rogers

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Attachment Theory.

JOHN BOWLBY’S THEORY AND HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS.

Attachment theory has a three-attachment style. Secure, Avoidant and Anxious or Ambivalent.

Secure attachment is when caregivers are responded continuously for child needs. A child feels safe and trusts for the environment. As an adult person who grows up in strong attachment have excellent ability to trust others, faster establishes new friendships. They are happier in a relationship. Feel comfortable, secure and connected. They are satisfied with their life. They are honest and independent. Supportive and helpful in a relationship. When the problems arrive, they are willing to talk and resolve their dilemma. (Bowlby,1997) 

Avoidant attachment is a situation where a child was avoided without full attention by caregivers and learned to be depended on him/her self rather than expect help from others. This attachment has effect in adult life as avoidance behaviour, lack of trust, selfish, pseudo- independent and other emotional distances. (Bowlby,1997). This kind of attachment was created by caregivers who do not attend much in their, children life. Lack of attendance – no one at home, most of the time the children spend time alone with unsecured and negative thoughts. 

That experiences from childhood bring in the adult life emotional hunger, needy and clingy personality. Often demanding and possesses. This person will seek an intimate relationship, but also, constant fear of abandonment will bring rumination in their life. Easy irritated and jealous with feeling insecure. (Bowlby,1997) In this scenario, we see how significant the relationship is and how is developing in many different ways in later life. Also, a child who was growing up in that particular attachment that similar behaviour will be replicated in adulthood. (Bowlby,1997). 

According to Carl Rogers also, the human relationship is notable in therapeutic existence. Counselling and psychotherapy are depended, as it were, on building a human association with clients, (Clarkson, 2014) where a deep level of trust is set up, this rises above any methodology, this is seen in crafted by Carl Rogers. He describes the core conditions of Empathy, Congruence and Unconditional positive regards, as the establishments of building a relational partnership between two individuals. As far the core conditions are developed in the therapeutic relationship that far increasing our awareness and creates understanding in a human relationship. (Rogers, 1995). 

The necessary aspect of the human relationship to the self-representations was described very educatively by Constantine Sedikides. Three selves. Individual Selves, Rational and Collective Selves. 

The individual self-mirrors a man’s uniqueness. This representation involves qualities, for example, characteristics and practices, side interests and preoccupations, yearnings and objectives—that separate the individual from others. Also, this sort of self is moderately free of dyadic connections or group participation. (Sedikides & Brewer, 2002) 

The social self-reflects match bonds or connections (e.g., emotional, romantic relationship or other, companionships). This replica includes qualities that are shared with close others and may characterise parts inside the relationship. The attributes separate the relationship from the connections that other individuals have. (Clarkson, 2014) 

The collective self-reflects participation in, and besides comparability and identification with, esteemed social gatherings. This portrayal involves characteristics that are imparted to ingroup individuals and may characterise parts inside the group. The attributes separate the ingroup from relevant outgroups. (Sedikides & Brewer, 2002) 

A fundamental psychological need is explored in Maslow’s Pyramid of Needs, and one of the needs are belonging and relationship. Wisely Maslow notice that needs is important to good experiencing well-being (Maslow & Town, 2013). As a human, we need to be with other people for a simple reason. Without other fellowship, we are not capable to live in fully. We need each other for build relations for growing and existence. 

As a singular person, we are not sufficient to found food, shelter, and threads. People need help and cooperation with other people. People have evolved to cooperate because cooperation gives us a better chance of survival. We need connection with other people not only for procreation but also for general wellbeing and growth our value as a human. 

For instance, for Buber, to be is mean to be in connection, in exchange, in dialogue. To be an individual, for Buber, is to hold oneself of a disposition of connection by saying an “essential word.” I-Thou and I-It. These two essential words stamp two different ways of being concerning the world. I-It connections are represented by meeting and using objects. These are one-way connections. The I of I-It relations comprehends and encounters the world as one made out of articles locatable in space and time. Along these lines of identifying with the world sees no difference amongst individuals and things. 

I-Thou relationships are two-way connections in understanding as discourse. One being experiences another with shared mindfulness. I-Thou connections are described by what Buber calls presentness. For Buber, the present is not the theoretical point amongst past and future, yet like the endless now of the spiritualist, it is the nearness of force and wholeness and exists just seeing that gathering and connection exist. The experience of I-Thou is so powerful that it is not sustainable. 

In this manner, each I-Thou relationship must turn into an I-It relationship. In final once one encounters the I-Thou as a man with characteristics that can be acknowledged independently, the transient I-Thou relationship vanishes. Once an It has been an I- Thou, in any case, it generally can turn into an I- Thou once more. It is, in this way, workable for a man to have an I- It association with another that never progresses toward becoming I-Thou (Buber 2002, p. 34). If a relationship is described only by encountering and utilizing, at that point the other never turns into an I-Thou


If her past were your past, her pain your pain, her level of consciousness your level of consciousness, you would think and act exactly as she does. With this realization comes forgiveness, compassion and peace.

Eckhart Tolle

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Schema Therapy

JEFFREY YOUNG’S SCHEMA THERAPY.

Schema Therapy was developed by Jeffrey Young and other supporters who adopted that technique from CBT in the 1980s, alongside components of Attachment theory, Gestalt and Psycho-dynamic Approaches. 

Schema Therapy has four main points; 

• Early Maladaptive Schema, which has eighteen other schemas, for instance; emotional deprivation, undeveloped self, or negativity and pessimism which are all early schemas developed during childhood. 

• Core Emotional Needs 

• Schema Mode, 

• Maladaptive Coping Styles 

Common Dysfunctional Coping Styles and Responses 

This is surrender as a repeating module, overcompensation and doing the opposite of our feelings, avoidance as an escape or to stop our schema. Overcompensation responses include aggression, dominance or passive aggression. In surrender the client will “freeze” and find compliance and dependence, and maladaptive avoidance such as “flight” results in social and psychological withdrawal. (Young, Klosko, & Weishaar, 2003).

This explains why individuals behave in a particular way during adulthood. One of schema therapy’s aims is to help clients understand their behaviour and take action to change maladaptive behaviour (Young et al., 2003).


If her past were your past, her pain your pain, her level of consciousness your level of consciousness, you would think and act exactly as she does. With this realization comes forgiveness, compassion and peace.

Eckhart Tolle

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More about compassion.

Compassion Focused Therapy (CFT) is linked with other behavioural approaches, was created for people with mental health and psychological disorders. It is most beneficial for clients who are struggling with shame and guilt (Gilbert, 2009), but also for people who suffer from Anxiety, Shame, Self-criticism, Depression, Eating disorders, Anger, Suicide, and Self-injury 

Like in MBCT, the CFT has roots in Buddhist Philosophy and Social Psychology. Conversely, attachment theory and evolutionary psychology support this treatment as well (Gilbert, 2014). CFT was developed by Paul Gilbert in the 21st century and is very well linked with other psychotherapies rather than belonging to one modality.

Where the CFT is Focus.

This therapy is focuses on three main evolved functions of emotions; 

1) An alertness to threats, and to subsequently activate defensive coping strategies.

2) To provide information on the resources and rewards available and to then activate engagement-seeking strategies.

3) To think about safe places, that allow rest and non-action in the form of contentment and openness (Gilbert, 2014). 

A person who practices CFT will be able to cultivate a compassion inner and outer self. They will also be adopting the skills to be more compassionate towards themselves and others and will develop the skills of tolerance and non-judgmental attitudes. (Gilbert, 2009) 

Imagery is a technique which is used in CFT and may help more than mindfulness, especially in the treatment of anxiety or depression. Some evidence shows the effectiveness of CFT in psychosis or schizophrenia. 

Therapy can be difficult for individuals who can find compassion treatment difficult and challenging to accept because of their core beliefs, however this evidence-based treatment is worth consideration in the broader mental health area (Braehler, Gumley, & Harper, 2011).


If her past were your past, her pain your pain, her level of consciousness your level of consciousness, you would think and act exactly as she does. With this realization comes forgiveness, compassion and peace.

Eckhart Tolle

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Attentiveness in the mind.

Mindfulness approaches. 

Mindfulness is used in a comprehensive way in psychotherapy. Mindfulness is a deliberate living right here and now with fully awareness (Lehrhaupt, Meibert, 2017). Without attachment to the moment, but also not rejecting or judging, more attending and experiencing any new moment without bounding between past and future, rather being here and now (Hayes, Follett & Linehan, 2004). Mindfulness can be practiced anytime and everywhere with meditation or contemplative prayer. Mindfulness is not practiced only in psychotherapy but also in martial arts, yoga and other disciplines. (Hayes, 2004) 

Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy.

The inventor of Mindfulness -Based Therapy (MBCT), is respectively Jon Kabat Zin, who is a founder of Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction Therapy (MBSR) as well and then; Zindel Segal, John Teasdale, and Mark Williams, who connected Eastern Buddhist philosophy and meditation and the western psychology of CBT (Segal, Williams, & Teasdale, 2002). The two components were created, similar to CBT, to deal with positive outcome of negative thoughts and behaviours.

The MBCT was previously used for group intervention to prevent relapse into depression but today is used broadly for mental and physical problems (Segal et al, 2002).

Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction

As was mentioned before, Dr. Jon Kabat-Zinn is the founder of the Mindfulness- Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) Program. This eight-week program is having been in use since 1979. By 1999 over 10.000 people were using this short-term treatment (Kuyken, 2013)

Mindfulness and DBT

DBT specifically focuses on providing therapeutic skills in four key areas; 

  1. Mindfulness. The core thought is to accept and help to improve the existence, without judging the present moment and stay with the moment without prejudice the future or dealing with past. Mindfulness is a tool which can overcome archetypal, negative beliefs the client may have about themselves and others (Dimeff & Linehan, 2001). 
  2. Distress tolerance.  Similar like in previous place (mindfulness) is to stay with the moment but do not avoid the present moment and the feelings, rather stay with them and experiences it. This skill helps the client to cope better with uncomfortable situations by creating a new way to diminish the effects of distressing circumstances (Dimeff & Linehan, 2001).
  3.  Emotion regulation.  This tool helps to recognize more clearly what the client can feel and then observe each emotion without getting overwhelmed by it. This skill teaches clients how to feel in constructive and healthy ways by learning new strategies to manage powerful emotions which are creating problems in a client’s life (Dimeff & Linehan, 2001).
  4. Interpersonal effectiveness. This technique entails empowering clients to interact with others by learning how to express their own beliefs and needs. This skill improves self-esteem and teaches clients how to present their new self with respect to others while protecting their own self (Chapman, 2006). 


“The best way to capture moments is to pay attention. This is how we cultivate mindfulness. Mindfulness means being awake. It means knowing what you are doing.” ~ Jon Kabat-Zinn

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Cognitive Behavior Therapy

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, CBT in short is an integration of cognition and behaviour psychology which interact with human behaviour in various fields of human existence. This therapy is developing to improving mental health and wellbeing of individuals. 

According to the Beck’s Instruction of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, CBT in short, is an establishing of two therapeutic interventions; Cognitive Therapy & Behaveioural Therapy.

  • cognitive therapy is for clients to change irrational way of thinking
  • behavioural therapy is to change a pathological and dysfunctional behaviours. 

The cognitive therapy approach was developed by A.T. Beck, beginning in the 1960s as a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, where the mental health professional works to help the client to identify the negative pattern of thinking, then reduce the stress and maladaptive behaviour and show a more realistic way of thinking (Beck. J, 1995). 

The aforementioned methods of CBT were initially implemented by Adler who address Cognition in Psychotherapy (Sweeney, 1998). Adler’s belief that without psycho-education, psychotherapy will not be successful.

Behavioural, cognitive and other directive, developmental therapies must be included to achieve a desired effect in treatment. As it happens with CBT practice. As a therapist Adler wants to understand the client’s unrealistic belief system and help the client to solve their current problems. To stay in the present, rather than conveying with experience like in Freudian psychoanalytic approach. (Sweeney, 1998). 

Appearance of Cognitive Behavior Therapy 

CBT become more visible after implemented from integrating learning of social and cognitive approaches. This education was beginning by Meichenbaum and Goodman, who focus on self-talk and D’Zurilla and Goldfried who concentrate on problem-solving in emotional and cognitive processes (Benjamin, Puleo, & Settipani, 2011). The next one is Albert Ellis in 1950 as a developer of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy, and Alfred Adler with Personality Theory then developmental pioneer of CBT is Aaron Beck since 1960. Cognitive therapy was initially designed to treat depression and is now used for many mental health conditions, different psychological disorders and other phobias (Beck. J, 1995). Some of these diseases, for instance clinical depression or schizophrenia, must be treated with medication and talk therapy in the same period to achieve a desirable effect. The research shows that cognitive therapy could also help with bowel syndrome and other neuroses.

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There are more fruitful and intense techniques under the umbrella of CBT. The basic practice in the CBT approach is case formulation, also known as “case conceptualization”. (Kuyken, Padesky, & Dudley, 2011). CBT has three main aspects in its hierarchy; automatic thoughts, rules and assumptions and core beliefs (Beck.J 1995). The negative pattern of thinking belongs to client’s early experiences. Irrational thoughts could be for example; “I will never be good, I am useless”. Those thoughts are created by the core beliefs and supported by the cultural regulations. 

Expand of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy 

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy has been a problem-focused and action-oriented model of treatment since the third generation was established. Various of modality was arise to the treatment and enlarge the alliance of practitioners, which is beneficial for clients. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy has reached its threshold of excellence. Despite the many positive aspects of CBT, there was a need for more developmental methods in therapy because of the limitations that arose in Becks’ theory. (Chen & Safer, 2012) New fields in cognitive behavioural therapy have contributed to improving mental health. The writer will describe several of these therapies below. 

 

Numerous behavioural therapies are included of the CBT approach but was invented from different practitioners; Dialectical Behaviour therapy with inventor Marsha Linehan, (Chapman 2006). Young’s with Schema Therapy, Gilbert’s Compassion Focused Therapy, in 1982 Steven C. Hayes is a founder of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Then a Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy was expanded by Philip Barnard and John Teasdale in 1991 (Herbert & Forman, 2011). All these psychotherapy techniques will be expanded on in another chapters.  

Conclusion 

Cognitive therapy is a kind of solution in life. It is helpful in solving current problems as well as permanent disorders. (Beck,2001). This treatment needs to be practiced alongside with other behaviour theory and mindfulness approaches which were mentioned above in this paper. However, new research is needed in a growing world with expanding global mental health problems. This behavioural practice is evidence-based with broad research on individual techniques. Most of the therapies are based on mindfulness techniques and are used in practice accordingly. 

Behavioural Therapy leads to evidence-based ‘talking therapy’, as research shows the evidence of this therapy is positive in treating negative feelings. The CBT approach is helpful to achieve the goal in changing the maladaptive behaviour, for individuals and in group process. Professional therapist is able to challenge client’s cognition but is a necessary that client willing to work towards the change. The practical side of this treatment is homework, to attend to the exercise by using a sheet of charts, scales, tables, measures and questionnaires to identify different emotional problems and measure the symptoms of the issues at hand. However, that could be time consuming and not suited to everyone. For instance, for people who have learning difficulties, that could be a colossal challenge. The therapy is also not suitable for clients who are not ready to change. Because of the structured nature of CBT, it may not be suitable for people who have more complex mental health needs or learning difficulties. Also, a client with low self-esteem and a critical inner voice could struggle to participate with other evidence-based therapies. 

CBT therapy teaches people how to be their own therapist, and in this way, the person reaches their goals faster. A person can learn patterns to help them abstain from problematic behaviour and make wiser behavioural decisions. Its primary function is to guide therapy (Beck, J.1995). The CBT model helps the clients understand how thoughts, emotions, and behaviour work for the human being. CBT is continually expanding and evolving. 

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The main aspect of fruitful processes in counselling sessions including the CBT approach is to create an adequate case formulation, address the raised problem with the correct theory without mixing up, for example, relaxation techniques with the Person -Centred Approach. When the case conceptualization is ready to be formulated the therapist can use an adequate technique, which could be a new contribution to CBT theory and practice with individuals. 

If you have other examples, follow to the comments section. Thank you

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How to learn acceptance.

ACCEPTANCE COMMITMENT THERAPY

Author of many books, Hayes who works brings a new equivalent to the psychotherapy division with three main conditions; accept, connect, and take action (Hayes, Wilson & Strosahl, 2012). ACT theory in the “third wave” of behaviour therapy is established in behaviourism and is supported by analysis of cognitive processes (Larmar, Wiatrowski, & Lewis-Driver, 2014).

ACT is mainly used for strengthening of psychological flexibility. ACT is for a strengthening of psychological flexibility. The elasticity is the ability to react for own thoughts without hurt them self or play against own values (Lamar, 2014).

Commitment Therapy, which is a central difference between Beck’s model and the one proposed in the ACT, is precisely the role cognition plays in human functioning. The ACT can be understood as a behavioural analytic response to both the cognitive and existential critiques of traditional Behavioural Therapy. (Hayes, 2004). 

The ACT as many other techniques from the umbrella of the CBT developed in mindfulness corridor and work with familiar movement of researchers and practitioners (Ciarrochi& Bailey, 2008). ACT like other cognition approaches, undoubtedly was inspired by Beck’s philosophy. Also, the behavioural term is well known in ACT practice. (Zettle & Hayes, 1982).

1.Contact with the present moment; to be here and now; connect to the present moment and the surrounding world. 

2.Acceptance; learn and go through pain, and fully experience it without avoidance and trying to fix it. 

3. Diffusion; learn to how to back for the difficult place with make a space between thoughts, memories and flashing pictures. 

4. Self: to be fully aware of its own sensations and judgment of the self. 

5. Values: Knowing what is important for us and what direction we want to take in our life. 

6. Commitment: processes to live fully according to our values. 


“You have been criticizing yourself for years and it hasn’t worked. Try approving of yourself and see what happens.” ~ Louise Hay

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Dialectical Behavior Therapy

Who can be beneficial with DBT.

  • Self harm & suicide reduction
  • Depression & Anxiety
  • Eating disorder
  • Substances abuse
  • Anger & Challenging Behavior

Dialectical Behavioural Therapy (DBT) is help clients to cope with dysfunctional emotions and teach how to succeed conflict in relationships. In 1980 Marsha Linehan create a new approach, which is an evidence-based treatment and formerly was direct for a woman who suffer with borderline personality disorder (BPD) in short. Also known as Emotional Instability Disorder. However, research shows that DBT was successful with a mindfulness technique for individuals who suffer from depression, anxiety, eating disorders, substance abuse and other psychological disorder (Chapman 2006). Today it is very well-practiced to help self-harming and suicidal clients (Dimeff & Linehan, 2001).

Between 1970 & 1980 traditional CBT did not bring a satisfactory outcome for the aforementioned mental problems. DBT therapy is designated for people with more challenging behaviour and emotional states; who react to situations in a way that others do not and more excessively than others do. That therapy is useful in other treatments of addiction, anger, depression, and other difficulties in social interactions. (Bohlinger, 2013). 

DBT in practice.

To understand the DBT process is to see a situation which has two opposite thoughts which are possibly realistic at the same time.

For instance, a client suffers for particular ache but do not willing to change. Another case is when a client needs help but cannot accept support. During the counselling process the client can, together with therapist, find a more optional and realistic way of thinking. In each specific case there is usually more than one resolution. DBT teaches important skills which can reduce a negative emotion and help clients to learn how to cope with new emotional stability.

DBT is an assortment of behaviour-based therapy enriched with the addition of mindfulness and acceptance-based philosophy and practice, which are great equivalents of CBT theory and practice. Subscribe

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